Investigate Stage

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Earthwork 3

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1. Introduction to South Africa

2a) What questions would you like to ask about it?

2b)How does the photo compare to your ideas about Africa?

The photo is differs from my first impressions of Africa. I thought the continent wasn’t very developed and was mostly jungles and savannahs, however this photo shows that parts of Africa are very developed. The tall, majestic buildings are a symbol of Africa’s wealth and rapid development.

3a) In what ways were Cosmas Desmond’s ideas similar to or different from your ideas about Africa?

Similar, because my first impressions of Africa were also big forests and animals roaming around freely, not developed buildings. Cosmas Desmond expected “to hear lions roaring around the airport and then to hack my way through the jungle to my mission station”. While I didn’t feel nature was going to be present in Africa to such a great extent, the continent is more developed than I expected.

3b) What do you think he meant when he said that “the jungle was concrete and…the heathen were white”?

When he said “the jungle was concrete”, I believe he was saying that it was actually quite developed and instead of lots of trees, it was a “concrete jungle” or many buildings. In addition, I think the “heathen were white” means that there were many Caucasians in South Africa, which he didn’t expect.

4c) Would it be more accurate to call South Africa an LEDC or an MEDC? Give reasons for your answer

While South Africa is neither an LEDC or an MEDC and is actually an “emerging economy”, which is to say it is transitioning between the two, according to the statistics provided it is more accurate to call it an MEDC. Aside from the birth rate, GNP per capita, and urban population % (which are slightly higher than in MEDCs proving it has not yet completed the transition), the rest of the statistics are similar to MEDCs, indicating the government is able to provide education to a majority of the population (high adult literacy%) and able to provide good health care to their citizens (death rate and life expectancy).

2. Physical Geography of South Africa

1a) Locate the cities on the map where each flight took off and landed. Name the cities.

Flight #1:Flight took off in Johannesburg and landed in Durban

Flight #2:Flight took off in Durban and landed in Cape Town

1b) For each flight locate the features mentioned in the diary extracts. Name the features.

Flight #1:Grassland, river, hills, valleys, mountain peaks, coastal plain

Flight #2:Coastline, forest, mountains, fields, and Table Mountain

3a) Describe the vegetation in each photo.

The vegetation in photo B seems more controlled, like people have managed it. This type of vegetation is found on hills and near settlements. However, the vegetation in photo D seems more unrestrained. In addition, this type of vegetation is found near rivers and on more flat land.

3b) Suggest in which part of the country you would be likely to find each type of vegetation.

Vegetation in photo B:I think you would be more likely to find it in the north part of the country and the interior as these sections are raised.

Vegetation in photo D:I think you would be more likely to find it along the Vaal and Orange rivers, as well as the coastal regions, which are relatively low.

4a) Describe the differences in temperature between January and July in South Africa.

In January the temperature is 16~14 degrees Celsius along the coast, and over 24 degrees. In July the temperature along the coast was only 8 to 16 degrees Celsius and the temperature inland was less than 8 degrees.

4b) How do you explain these differences?

This change in climate is due to the winds and ocean currents. During the summer (January), the winds blow the warm tropical air onto the land, making temperatures increase, whereas in winter winds blow the air away from land, so temperatures decrease.

3. Human Geography of South Africa

1a) Describe the population distribution in South Africa

The population is most densely concentrated along the coast, and the majority of people live in the east part of the country. The population density is above 100 people/km2in the center of the biggest cities like Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, etc. It is slightly less concentrated (51-100 people/km2) in the lesser important cities, and the surrounding areas of the most important cities. Further away from the important cities it is more sparsely populated (6-50 people/km2), and in the immediate surrounding areas of the less important cities.

1b) Use map E to help you explain this distribution.

Along the northeast coast, the country is rich in natural resources such as iron, manganese, gold, coal, fertile farmland, and more. Most of the country’s resources are located in this section of the country. Fertile farmland, diamonds, and copper are all located along the west coast of the country.

2a) Estimate the proportion of each ethnic group is South Africa’s population.

Black – 75%

White – 10%

Colored – 10%

Indian – 4%

Other – 1%

2b) i) Compare population growth rate for each group in boxes B, C, G, and H.

The white population has the lowest population growth rate (1.2%), while the Indian population and colored population grow at higher rates (1.9% each). The black population has the fastest growth rate of 2.7%.

ii) Suggest how the composition of the population is likely to change in future.

I feel that in the future as the government improves the living standards of the black population (through offering more employment opportunities), they will choose to have less children. By raising the employment rate, the quality and access to health care should increase and so less children should be born, slowing population growth.

3b) Write four sentences comparing the quality of life for different groups of people in South Africa.

The white population has the best quality of life with the highest life expectancy, highest adult literacy rate, and more, which explains its low population growth. Following the whites, the Indian population has the next best quality of life, with a fairly high life expectance, literacy rate, employment rate, and more, all of which contribute to its relatively low growth rate. The group with the third best quality of life is the colored population, which has a fairly low life expectancy and unemployment rate. Lastly, the black population has the lowest quality life as the statistics like life expectancy, adult literacy rate, unemployment rate (more than 1/3 of the population), population growth rate show.

4. Division

1a) Estimate the proportion of South Africa that was occupied by “homelands” for black people. What proportion of South Africa was owned by white people?

I estimate that 1/3 of South Africa was occupied by “homelands” for black people, and the remaining 2/3 was owned by white people.

1b) Compare this with the proportions of black people and white people in the population (pg 116)? How does this how the injustice of apartheid?

There were 4.9 million white people in 1998 and they made up about 11% of the population, however there were 34.5 million black people that year and they made up about 77% of the population. These statistics support the injustice of the apartheid as 77% of the population was forced to live in only 1/3 of its space, whereas the few white million people owned 2/3 of the country’s land.

2a) Trace every detail of map A onto tracing paper and place it over map E on page 117

See folder for the map

2b) Find out what resources could be found in the black areas and white areas of south Africa. Which cities were in each area?

In black areas very few natural resources could be found. These “homelands” had a little fertile farmland and small copper, platinum, asbestos and iron . In comparison, the whites owned large amounts of fertile farmland, and took over the majority of the country’s natural resources . They were in charge of South Africa’s gold, coal, diamonds, iron, manganese, copper, asbestos, platinum, and uranium.

Only 2 major cities, East London, and Durban were located in the homelands. Pretoria, Johannesburg, Bloemfontein, Port Elizabeth, and Cape Town were all located in regions where whites lived.

2c) What does this tell you about the way the country was divided? How would it affect the quality of life for black and white people?

This division indicates that the country was segregated based on availability of resources. The black population was forced to live in areas where resources were scarce. This means that they had a significantly lower quality of life as they were unable to really develop their agriculture and industry, thus they remained relatively poor. There wouldn’t be enough jobs for people and the youth would be unable to receive a good education. The infrastructure in these regions would have been of quite poor quality and people’s living standards would be inferior in comparison to whites. The white population would have been relatively wealthy as they lived in areas that were rich in resources. These regions would have been able to develop their agriculture and industry, and the people living there would have been employed. A higher GDP would mean the youth could receive a good education and the infrastructure of the area would be of a greater standard. Overall, their living standards were superior to that of the blacks.

4a) Suggest what laws the new government in South Africa would have to change to make the country fairer.

The government would have to abolish laws that forced blacks to move to the “homelands” and redistribute the land fairly to all ethnic groups (based on population and other factors). In addition they should stop segregation because it breeds hatred and makes the country inefficient. Another law it should implement is one aimed at improving healthcare and housing for the black people to raise their living standard, as this ethnic group has the lowest quality of life in South Africa.

4b) Suggest five priorities for future development in South Africa to overcome the problems created by apartheid.

1) Greater investment in the education of the black population

2) Getting rid of separate facilities for blacks and whites

3) Improving housing and healthcare, with a focus on the ‘homelands’

4) Providing incentives for large companies and foreign countries to trade with South Africa

5) Ensuring that the country’s wealth and land was shared fairly between the different ethnic groups

5. Can the city be united?

1a) Which person has a lifestyle most like your own? In what ways is it similar? In what ways is it different?

Paulo de Almeida’s lifestyle is most like my own. Our lifestyles are quite similar as we both own fairly large homes, though his is a four bedroom house and mine is a three bedroom. In addition, we both do sport at school, and both of our families own at least one car. Lastly, we both have domestic help, for us its an ayi, while Paulo has a housemaid and gardener. However, there are some differences in our lifestyles. For starters, Paulo lives in the suburbs of Johannesburg, whereas I live in the heart of Beijing. Furthermore, he lives in a house, while I live in a flat. Moreover, my mother is as worried about crime in Beijing, so I’m allowed to catch a taxi or ride the subway alone.

1b) Is the lifestyle of the other person similar to yours in any way?

The lifestyle of Nomoya Khambule still shares some similarities with my life. We both chose to live in a place that was close to our school. In addition, in the place we live taxis are a main form of transport, though in my case they are not the cheapest way to travel around the city.

2a) Find the location of the two teenager’s homes. Describe the distribution of mainly white and mainly black residential areas on the map.

On the map, we can see that most of the white residential areas are scattered on the south east part of the map. They are small dots on he map in comparison with the black residential areas like Soweto which make up the majority of the south east section of the map.

3a) Describe the density and the pattern of housing in the two areas. How do they compare with the area where you live?

Jabavu is an area with high density housing as can be seen by the houses packed one after the other. The housing is very orderly, with houses in straight rows. However, Linden is an area with low density housing as each house is given lots of surrounding space. Furthermore, the housing seems more random as the houses aren’t in orderly rows.

3b) From the photos, draw a simple sketch map of each area to show differences in the housing pattern and density.

I was unsure about how to do this but I tried and the results can be seen in my folder.

4a) Describe your weekly routine.

Early Monday morning I ride a taxi (minibus) from Soweto to a suburb of Johannesburg where I work. I live and work in this home till Friday evening, where I ride a taxi (minibus) back to Soweto and reunite with my family.

4b) Describe the contrasts between the two different worlds you live in.

The contrasts between my true home and my work place are truly shocking. The greatest difference is in housing. In Soweto, a fortunate family would be able to afford a single story house with 3 bedrooms, but in the suburbs, the family I work for has a 4 bedroom house and garden, yet there are only 3 people in the family. Another big difference is the transportation. Here in Soweto, we tend to use taxis to get around, but in the suburbs everyone owns cars.

4c) What are your feelings about all of this?

Honestly, it’s quite crazy being a part of both worlds. I’m exposed to the lives of the rich when I go to work, but it only brings out the unfairness of the poorer living standards of black South Africans. Seeing the luxuries that my employers can easily afford, while our family struggles to pay for essentials like housing and education, makes me rather upset. It just seems so unjust that they could have so much wealth and us so little. The gap between the rich and the poor of South Africa needs to be closed for the city to develop properly.

6. Education for the future

1a) What do photos D and F show about the quality of education in the two schools?

These photos show the contrast between the quality of education provided for a black person like Nomoya and a white person like Paulo. In Nomaya’s school, the facilities are inferior as students have to share desks and the classrooms are smaller, but have more students. This means the teacher is not able to support the individual as much as in a white school. As the photo shows, the students in the white school get their own desks, which are spread out more in the spacious room. Also, there are less students, which means the teacher can pay more attention to each one.

1b) From your own experience of school, what factors affect the quality of education? Think of at least 10 and list them in order of importance.

  1. Teacher’s qualifications

  2. School facilities

  3. School location

  4. Attitudes of your peers

  5. School size

  6. School administrators

  7. School principal(s)

  8. How well-established the school is

  9. Duration of the school day

  10. Frequency of school holidays

1c) Explain why you put your top three in this position.

I placed teacher’s qualifications as the most important factor as they are ultimately the people responsible for educating the students. Without qualified teachers a school cannot properly educate students as the teachers will not be capable to teach the students. As teachers have the most direct impact on the quality of a student’s education, I listed them as the top factor.

School facilities do not just include the furniture in the school, but also the supplies available. In my opinion, this has a great impact on the quality of education a student receives because without proper textbooks and other supplies, the education a student can receive is rather limited.

The size of your school can also determine the quality of education you receive. This is because if the school is too big and the facilities cannot adequately support the number of students, then they will receive a lower quality of education.

2a) Write five sentences to compare the educational experience of black pupils and white pupils in South Africa.

Even today, there is a great division between the educational experience of black and white pupils in South Africa. Black students are more likely to be taught in school with poor facilities such as limited space. In addition, there are usually many more students per class in those schools. White students are usually wealthier and can afford to go to private schools where they receive a better education. Overall, white students tend to stay in school far longer than blacks with two times the number of white people getting a college degree.

b) Explain how education would affect:

i) the adult literacy rate

As we can see from the 1998 statistics, education has a great impact on the adult literacy rate of a population. For black South Africans, who spend an average of 5.5 years in school, the adult literacy rate was 76.6%. In comparison, white South Africans who spent an average of 11.7 years in school (almost double of black South Africans), had a much higher literacy rate of 99.5%. The statistics also show that less white South Africans left school and more ended up with university degrees. As they are educated longer, they are able to read and write with higher proficiency (and usually this knowledge is passed down to their children). Hence, when a population receives more education, the adult literacy rate rises.

ii) the unemployment rate for each group

Looking again at the statistics, it is clear that the more education a population receives, the lower their unemployment rate. Education prepares people for jobs, and makes them capable of fulfilling tasks essential to the community. Among the white South African population, whom spend an average of 11.7 years in school, the unemployment rate is only 5.5%. In comparison, the black South African population spends an average of 5.5 years in school and their unemployment rate is 37%.

2c) Do you agree that education will be “the most important factor in South Africa’s future development”? Give reasons for your answer.

In my opinion, education will be “the most important factor in South Africa’s future development” because without improving the quality of education for the black population, South Africa will not be able to develop to its maximum potential. People need to be educated so that they are fully capable in their jobs. In addition, it is also proven that more education means a decreased birth rate, which is important to ensuring that South Africa does not become overpopulated. Overall, education will ensure that people are able to make meaningful contributions to society and will not lead to problems like overpopulation, hence it is the critical factor in South Africa’s future development.

3a) Describe the effect that crime has on people living in Johannesburg.

The high rates of crime in Johannesburg have a great impact on the people living in the region. People are forced to expend more than 10% of their income on security measures. This is a large portion of their salary, which means that they have less for other things like education, food, and so forth. In addition, more people are being forced to go to the suburbs to reach their working place. As the businesses have relocated, people have to travel longer distances and this drives up transportation costs.

3b) From what you already know about the city, suggest why the crime rate is so high.

I feel that the crime rate is so high because of the gap between the rich and the poor and the high unemployment rates. Firstly, there is a great difference between the wealthiest citizens of South Africa and the poorest, and this may result in the poor stealing from the rich. However, it is more likely that the high unemployment rates are the reason behind the high crime rates. When people are unemployed, they tend to resort to crime to earn an income and I believe this is what the unemployed people of Johannesburg (especially the blacks) are being forced to do.

7. South Africa – the world in one country?

1) Look at cartoon A. Explain what you think the cartoon is trying to say.

I think the cartoon is trying to say that though the apartheid system has been abolished, blacks still have the inferior jobs and still have to serve whites. We see a black man offering food and drinks to two Caucasians, and in the background a black man is mowing a lawn. The cartoon is trying to say that black men still perform the more menial tasks in South Africa’s society, even in the “new” South Africa.

2a) What does the UN Human Development Index measure?

The UN Human Development Index measures how developed a country is by looking at statistics such as life expectancy, adult literacy rate, wealth, and more.

2b) Where does South Africa rank among other countries? Does this surprise you? Why?

South Africa is still in a medium level development, as its HDI is 0.677. In comparison with the other countries on the list it is the 7th most developed and this doesn’t surprise me. While overall, South Africa is one of the richest African countries, as the living conditions for black South Africans show, the country still has to develop before it reaches the level of an MEDC. Hence, I was not surprised because I’m aware that the living standards of some racial groups has to improve before the whole country can reach a high level of development.

2c) Which South African provinces rank above the national average? Which fall below?

Western Cape (0.826), Gauteng (0.820), Northern Cape (0.698), and Mpumalanga (0.694), are the four South African provinces that rank above the national average. In comparison, Free State (0.657), KwaZulu Natal (0.602), North West (0.543), Eastern Cape (0.507), and Northern Province (0.470), are the five South African provinces that rank below the national average.

2d) Compare the rank order in this table with the order that you found in activity 2 on page 121. Was it similar? Why?

We didn’t do this activity, however one would assume that the results are similar because similar criteria such as life expectancy and the literacy rate are being used to judge the different provinces.

3a) Each person should study the data under one of the headings in boxes C and D. What are the similarities? Are there any differences? Write a paragraph to compare the data for South Africa and the whole world.

There are many similarities between the statistics for South Africa and the whole world. In terms of population, the population break down of South Africa and the world is quite similar. In South Africa 13% of the population is white and in the world about 19% of the population lives in MEDCs. Furthermore the population growth rate of the two main population groups is also rather similar. The South African white population grew by 0.8%, while the MEDC population grew by 0.4%. The numbers are also very close with the non-white and LEDC group. In addition, the health statistics are extremely close with the black South Africans only living for one year less than the average people in an LEDC. Furthermore, the life expectancy for the average white South African is the same as the expectancy for a person in an MEDC. Also, both South Africa and the world had only a little land for the native people of the region.

3b) What are different ways in which the information under the different headings can be linked?

  • Health and population

  • Map and wealth

  • History and map

  • Health and wealth

4) Discuss the statement, “South Africa is a microcosm of the world.” To what extent do you think the statement is true or false?

I believe that this statement is most definitely true as people of a variety of backgrounds and all walks of life can be found in South Africa. From Caucasians, to blacks, to Asians, all the major racial groups are present. The standard of living for these different groups is truly representative of those of the world. Not only is the human landscape of the country diverse, so is the physical landscape. From mountains to plains to coastal beaches, South Africa has it all. In addition, upon comparing statistics for health, population growth, population breakdown, wealth, and history, we can see that South Africa symbolizes the world. sFor these reasons I would most definitely say that the statement above is true, and South Africa is to a very large extent a “microcosm of the world”.


History presentation

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Statement Template

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Africans in America Homework

1. When did the African slave trade take place?
Early 1600s
2 How many slaves were brought to the Americas?
About 9.5 million people
3 What was the slaves’ destination?
4 What was the “triangular trade”?
Between West Indies, Europe and Africa where they trade goods and slaves.
5 What kinds of work did they do?
They usually plant sugar, cotton, tabacco and etc.
6 Describe life on a plantation.
Everybody work hard, men usually did heavy labor, and they do not get a lot of money or enough food to eat.
7 When did slavery end?
It ended in 1833 for Britain, and other nations ended afterwards.
8 What was the most significant consequence of the slave trade?
African Americans started to rebel and people started to have disagreements.
9 Why did the US fight a civl war?
It is because the North and the South had a lot of disagreements about slavery. The North side wanted to stop slavery but the South didn’t want to. The South side wanted to be independent but President Lincoln disagreed and it started the first war that included iron weapons.


Bamburgh Castle critical analysis

Thomas Girtin, Bamburgh Castle, Northumberland, 1797-9
-Huge rocks that makes it a cliff
-One person dressed with red clothes on sitting on the rock
-A person dressed with white clothes standing right next to the person sitting down
-Another person standing in between the hole holding something
-There are birds at the left side of the painting
-You could see the sea and the clouds
-There are stairs at the right side of the cliff
-It is a really high cliff beside the sea
It uses a lot of blue for the sea and the clouds. The artist used a lot of tints and shades for the background to make it look like that there's a lot of clouds covering the sun. It also made the cliff to look higher because the see seemed to be infinent.
The artist used a complete different type of color for the cliff to make it look more stand out.
The artist also drew a lot of birds at the bottom of the cliff, showing that this cliff is really high and the birds couldn't even fly as high.
This painting made the people look really small and the cliff really big, again, showing us how big the cliff is.
I think the artist is trying to show us that the person sitting on the ground was going to die and the other two people were forcing him/her to die. If you see closely, it looks like the person sitting down is sitting in a really uncomfortable position.
I really like this painting because this artist used the colors and the space to make the cliff looked so high and it made me feel like it is a really spectacular feeling when i first saw this painting.

1 comment

Journal Entry

Today was a really interesting day for me. It is the start of the spring holiday and me and my friend decided to go to TGIF to celebrate it. We got there pretty early because both of us were hungry and the seats might be full because it's TGIF and it's on a friday. It has been a while since we chatted and we had a lot of fun. We talk about every thing, funny things that happened, why something is depressing, and what's happening around us and etc. What's more funny is that we always say something simultaneously and it makes both of us think that we're somehow related to each other. Around six o'clock, the sky is already dark and we decided to go somewhere else than just sitting in the restaurant. Then, we realized that it was raining outside and we wanted to go to a place that where we can get taxies easily. But because of the rain, there were no empty taxies and even though they are empty, they wouldn't stop for us. We were hopeless, two "gap sisters" walking around trying to find a subway station for an hour. Not only that, both of us were carrying two bags and it was extremely heavy especially when it makes everything wet. Finally, we found a subway station, we quickly went in because we were all wet and tired. I was confused of what i should do in a subway becuase i've never been in a subway before. I realized how cheap it was to get in the subway. It cost us only two kuai to go any where and every where. I was so happy that we just ran around like chickens not knowing what we were doing and asking random people where to go because the map was even more confusing. After having all the fun, we were saying goodbye to each other and telling each other good luck and try not to get lost. After having my lucky guess of getting out of the subway station, i realized that my decision was correct because i know where to go from now on. Although it was a bit creepy that it was dark and that it is still raining, I always have this thing with darkness because it just scares me. Finally, i got back to my house and had an amazing shower and went straight to sleep because it was a tiring but fun day. Now i know how to take a subway. :)

The break is less than four days but I am still enjoying my holiday and hang out with my friends. I was very happy to see my friend because he just came back from Xi an with his family and we could finally hang out agian. We went to Sanlitun and while i was waiting, i saw one of the teachers in BCIS and i was very surprised to see her. We chatted a little and asking each other how was our holiday and we both smiled at each other and said goodbye. I could tell that she is spending her holiday in a really enjoyable way. My friend finally arrived and we started walking around the whole Sanlitun and talked. We treid to go to Cold Stone and sit for a while but they didn't let us, we treid to go to a resturant but they didn't let us, and we finally found a cafe and sat there. We literally didn't do any thing but just playing games on my phone for a long time. After done playing all the games on my phone, passing all the missions, we decided to eat dinner together. Suddenly, another friend called said they wanted to eat dinner with us and both of us agreed. Although me and my friend were not hungry, the four of us still went to Blue Frog to eat dinner. We had a lot of fun but one of our friend had to get home really early and so we all had to say goodbye to each other.

Today i woke up in a mad way because of what happened in my weird dreams from last night. It wasn't only one weird dream, but a lot of weird dreams. I can't remember every single one but the one that i remembered the most was the last one. I dreamt of a gang out people started punching my brother and another guy that i've never met before. From what i remembered, i don't know this guy and so does my brother. It was a garden full of green grasses and colorful flowers. It was a sunny day and nobody is wearing jackets or thick clothes anymore. Suddenly, a group of people circled us around and started punching the guy that i've never met before and my brother. Not only that, they also used metal sticks to hit them and use knifes to stab them until they knee down on the ground and with their mouth full of blood. I don't remember what happened next because i woke up from fear and then i realized that it was in the morning already. I tried to go back to sleep but i couldn't. This gave me a feeling that today is going to be either boring or a bad day. And yup, i didn't have a really good day. I realized that i have another homework that i didn't finish and it is a big project, I realized that today was the last day of the holiday, and I found out that my best friend ditched me for another person. I love it how i spend my last day of the holiday in anger.


Student Led Conference

A suggestion to make the Student Led Conference is that the day is always a wednesday but i think it would be better if they we do it on a friday so we don't have to come to the school the next day. :)


My opinion

After reading the Article, I have better understanding of the painting 'Christina's world'. The author of this article stated the true emotions behind this painting and showed his knowledge about the painter and the background information of this painting. The girl in this painting is Christina Olson and the author knew what happened and what was wrong with Christina, which is how he talked about christina's position of sitting. Another reason why i like this article is that he also explained the neutral colros etc. This is why i think the author made a really good analysis. I enjoyed reading this article because it is a good article.


History Vocabulary Notes

Three Bitter Years:
Marxist Jargon )specialized vocabulary):
Bourgeois (adj) - capitalist, business man, middle class, bourgeoisie (noun)
feudalism0 landlords against peasants
capitalism- bourgeoisie against workers (proletariat)

Political Spectrum:
Rightist- racism (patriotic)

reactionary- person who opposes the revolution.

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15<-The Great Leap Forward Question B&C

1. a.) According to Hugo Portisch, what difficulties were involved in making the dam?
They don't have enough machine, no cement and mortar or other building materials, and that they had to build it with their bare hands.
b.) How were these difficulties overcome?
They had a lot of people and they encouraged them.

2. a.) How does Hugo Portisch suggest that people worked on the dam against their will?
He says they were "summoned" to build the dam and that all kinds of people had to. He also makes the work sound extremely hard.
b.) How does he suggest that many people felt real enthusiasm for their work?
He says that they worked all day and night for 8 hour shifts with no breaks.

1. Suggest why the workers in the foreground appear to be enjoying their work.
They might be happy about China finally being modernized, or they might know that the picture is being taken and that they have to please Mao Zedong or else they will not be happy.

2. Does the photograph help to confirm or disprove any of the evidence in source C? Explain your answer.
It helps confirm that they really didn't have any tools except their own hands and some old tools such as rocks, it also confirms that there were a lot of people and they really did have to work really hard because they are on rough terrain with no tools.


‘altered' Christina's World

After looking a 5 of the different 'altered' Christina's World's paintings/drawings, I picked 2 that i found interesting and i want to look at these artworks the same way as i did in today's lesson.

-The girl is sitting at the bottom of the hill and she is wearing a white bikini lying on an orange blanket with a radio on it
-There is only one house at the upper right corner of the drawing and it looks like a modern house
-The sky is orange, which means it is really bright, and so it is still day time
-There are a lot of green trees surrounding the girl and the house
-It is full of green grass and it looks like it is a hill going upwards

-The colors that the artist used in this painting are mostly bright colors. The green that the artist chose were mostly light/bright green and the orange for the blanket and the sky were bright orange too.
-The color also separated the space for the hill and the sky by using complete different colors to show the difference.

I think the artist is trying to tell us that it is a sunny day and the girl just lies on a blanket and enjoy the sun shine and listening to the radio and relaxing. The house on the hillside is her own house because this picture used bright colors and so it gives me a feeling that it is a pretty happy feeling for this painting/drawing.

-There are a lot of cars driving away from the girl
-There are a few buildings at the top of the hill side (top of this painting)
-There is a bridge turnining and going upwards
-Could tell from the sky that is it not a sunny day
-The grasses that the girl is lying on is orange ish and green ish
-The girl is wearing a baby pink dress
-There is a white (plastic) bag at the bottom of this painting

-The colors that the artist used for this painting are not bright, and it used different colors to separate the sky and the land. The artist also used the colors to separate the road and the grass.

-The way i think of this painting is that the girl is a village girl, but she is lying on a urban city's grass with all those cars and bridges etc surrounding her. She seemed sad and that might be because she might not like the life in urban cities and that she like the life in the village. It seems like to me that the big house at the right hand corner of this painting is her house but she doesn't want to go back. It also looks like it is an afternoon feeling because of the sky color and the birds flying away. It is a pretty sad painting when i look at it.


Critical Analysis 'Christina's World'

I am looking at a painting called Christina's World On Viw Locally and i am giving it a critic analyze:
-There are a 4 buildings at the upper right side of the hill, and the biggest building looks like a house
-The weather looks like it is in the daylights
-The sun is at the right side because of Christina's arm's shadow and the building's shadow
-It is a hill
-The girl's hair is horizontally floating from
-Also a building like structure at the upper middle
-The girl is on the field and she is wearing a baby pink dress
-Her shoes looks a bit old
-There are two different type of the grass with two different colors
-The horizon is pretty high and the girl is below the horizon

(how the artist use the elements of art etc. The big important observations such as balance, color, emphasis, form, line, movement, pattern, proportion, shape, space, texture, unity, value and variety)
-Color: Mainly orange and green, and the color of the buildings are grey ish. The artist also used the color to identify the space. In the middle of the painting, it looks like it is going upwards like a hill, and then he used the color to separate the sky and the hill. (it gives more dimension to the painting)
-Value: The lower sky has a higher value and it has a lower value when it moves up
-Space: Space of the distance from the house and the girl is really significant

What is the artist trying to tell us?
-I think the girl is not hurt but she is sad about something. It looks like the big building at the right hand corner of the painting is a farm house. She looks lonely because she's sitting alone and and far away from the house. To me, it looks like she has a house but she can't go back for some reason. She looks like she's been abandoned by the family.

I think Andrew Wyeth did a good job on this painting. He showed us the sadness of this girl and gives us a really special feeling when we look at it.


Progress of Perspective painting

I think i have improved a lot after practicing to draw perspective drawings. At the beginning, i was a bit confused of how to draw them, especially 2 point perspective drawings. But after drawing it for several times, i found out that it was pretty easy to do it and i found it really interesting because i improved my self by drawing it over and over again, and i feel more confident on drawing 2 point perspective drawings, i sometimes can even draw 3 point perspective drawings now. :)

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The Great Leap Forward, 1958

  1. Who are the "masses"?
  2. How did Chairman Mao want to harness their "energy"?
  3. Describe a commune. What were its functions?
  4. Describe Communist Party propaganda. What methods did it use to encourage people to work?


  1. The masses are the Chinese people who worked hard for the great leap forward such as the peasants, and the workers. It does not mean landlords, or Guomingdang people. China is going to be a great country because of these people.
  2. He wanted to reorganize society into communes. People don't get distracted and they have more time to work. Women don’t have to take care of children; other people will take care of them like Child Care, and food preparation, laundry, household chores etc, all by the commune. In Communism, everybody works.
  3. A commune is when people share everything like their animals, lands, equipment to common ownership. It does industrial work, agricultural work. Party function, government function, and economic (work).
  4. They always played the revolutionary songs and tempting speeches when the people were working. They also encouraged workers not only to reach but to exceed their plan's targets.


The Understanding of Color Theory #2

I found this painting from Tate's Blog and i thought it was pretty interesting. As i said before, i love black and white paintings/ photographs. But i also love colorful paintings, especially about the nature. I pick this drawing because i think there is another meaning to this painting. It is not just showing us the mountain and the boat floating on the river and shows the reflections. As you can see, this painting looks a little blurry and the sun has been blocked by the mountain. When the sun gets blocked by the sun, that means that it is still in the morning. Also, the boat still have the light on, and that there are birds flying away. To me, morning means that it is a start of a new day, the river represents the difficulties that will happen to your life, the boat floating on the river represents the small percent of possibility of life and telling us don't give up, and the mountain represents the destination of our goal or our life. Not only that, i also love the colors that the artist have used. I love it how the artist uses tints and shades as his/her reflections on the water and how he/she used analogous colors from the big mountain to the small mountains and from yellow to green and then to blue on the river. Another thing i like about this painting is that the artist mostly used cold colors and only one warm color (yellow).


The Understanding of Color Theory

I found this Picture in the book that is called The 20th Century Artbook. It is a photograph that was taken by Acconi and the name of this piece of work is called Seedbed and it is taken in 1972. This photo really catches my eye because first of all, I really like the fact that it is black and white, and we are learning color theory in Art class. This photo shows that it has some tints and shades from using the color gray, to make it really light color that is almost like white, and make it really dark to become a dark grey color. People say that black and white is boring, but I think it can actually show a lot of meanings in it and it is actually sometimes even prettier than color paintings or photographs.


The Purpose of Tagging

Facts about tagging/ What it's for:
-Tagging is a form of classifying, it is grouping of information.
-By grouping, you group similar things together to form a group (boys and girls, Mac and PC, genres of music, age groups etc.)
-The purpose of classification is that it is easier to find information.


Qing Dynasy Essay Final

Download file "Alicia Ma Qing Essay Final.doc"